Tuesday, May 19, 2009

Compiled,and Edited
Joy Nwosu Lo-Bamijoko

Information On How To be listed in The Nigerian Music Directory

To be listed in the Nigerian Music Directory, please send to the editor the following:

1. A short write-up of yourself and your achievements, and
2. Your current photograph


This book is the result of a research that has spanned several years, and it is a work that is continuing. As we post the information collected here, we cannot say that we have exhausted all the information that should be in this first edition.
Until the book is finally printed, and after, we shall continue to accept materials for inclusion in the book. We strongly encourage those who have not been listed, and who should be listed, to send us, a short write-up on themselves, and their latest photographs.
I would, however, thank all those who responded to our call for entries. This is because without such entries, a book, like the directory cannot be published.
Because of the need to have an authoritative book on peoples and events in music in Nigeria, I was compelled to search far and near for suitable information and materials for this book.
I owe my greatest gratitude to the Ministry of Information and Culture, whose agents were most forthcoming with publications containing the most current data on facts about Nigeria.
My thanks also goes to Mr. Yemi Akeju, managing director of Ideas Communications Ltd., who authorised us to use materials from his publications on the performing Musicians Employers Association's Awards. These materials form the major part of entries on popular music.
The Center for Cultural Studies, University of Lagos, now known as The Department for The Performing Arts, over the years staged music festivals during which many popular musicians
were featured. A lot of very rare information on some of our popular musicians were obtained from the festival programs. I owe a great debt of gratitude to these publications and to the Center.
Every opportunity was utilized for gathering information. For instance, information on Fela Sowande was from the SOLIDRA post-humous award to the great master. The one on Ayo Bankole was from the portrait of Ayo Bankole written by Akin Euba at the time of the former's pre-mature death. The information on Bobby Benson and Art Alade were from their anniversary and burial programs respectively, and those on classical music exponents were mainly from performance programs. This, in a way, is to stress the importance of programs for research.

I will also like to thank my associates and friends, all of whom, in their various ways contributed to this work, to Ms, Owhotu who read through the work and spotted and corrected all the errors, to Mr. Tobi Komolafe who carried out the type-setting work and designed the first cover of the book, to Funmi Akinselure, my able assistant, to late James Adesunmola, our communications man, to Emmanuel Tettey and Mrs. Akinyemi who assisted me in many different ways, to Crenstil Koranteng and Onyehaozuru Ichi, all members of my research team, and lastly, but not the least, to my family who must have suffered some neglect while I spent long hours away from home searching for information and writing and compiling this book. Above all, I thank Professor Akin Euba for his support.

The Presidency:

Right from Nigeria's independence when music was given a place in the country's education with the establishment of the department of music at the University of Nigeria, Nsukka, the growth of music in Nigeria has remained very slow. Some music educators attribute this slow growth to the level at which music education was started; the tertiary level, and are now calling for change.
It was during the first Republic, in 1960, that the Department of music was started at the University of Nigeria, Nsukka. Since then until this writing, not much has been done at other levels to advance the development of music in the country. In all sectors of music, both in the popular, the classical and the music industry, we come face to face with the same story of government's neglect. This neglect becomes even more profound if we realize that since 1960, the year of formal music education in Nigeria, the music profession has never had any one at policy level in any of the arms of government that cater for music.
However, with the administration of General Ibrahim Babangida, who assumed office as the President of Nigeria from August, 1985 to 1993, we noticed, for the first time, some government's interest towards the Arts in general. During this administration, UNESCO launched the World Decade for Cultural Development, and this singular event, for some time, awakened government's interest for culture. First, a cultural Policy was promulgated for Nigeria in 1988, and in 1989, in quick succession, a Ministry of Culture was established. Barely two years after the ministry was set up, it was dissolved. The implementation of the Cultural Policy has since been suspended.
The highlights of Babangida's cultural diplomacy was in 1991 and 1992 when Babangida personally donated to the Performing Musicians Employers Association of Nigeria (PMAN) the sum of N5,000,000.00 and N10,000,000.00 respectively during the Associations Award Nights.
Presently, musicians from all over the country have become more pro-active. They have grown their professional association to the level dependency. They are no more looking up to the government to give music in particular, and the arts in general a definite status in this country. They have labored to give the profession a status that will provide the Arts with the means to develop and grow. A status that will rank the Arts with all other professions in Nigeria as well as, with all the benefits that such ranking will provide for the Arts.


The Federal Republic of Nigeria is situated on the west coast of Africa and falls within latitudes 4o and 14o and longitudes 3oE and 15oE. It occupies a land area of 923,768 sq. km and is bordered to the west by the Republic of Benin, to the north by Niger Republic and to the east by the Republic of Cameroon. Nigeria also shares a common border on Lake Chad with the Republic of Chad to the North-East while the Atlantic Ocean washes its southern coast line. The Nigerian landmass is drained by many rivers and waterways including two major ones, the River Niger from which the name Nigeria was derived, and the River Benue. Those two rivers form a confluence at Lokoja in the center of the country from where the River Niger fans out into a delta before flowing into the Atlantic Ocean. There are two fairly well-defined seasons in Nigeria; the rainy season which lasts from April to October, and the dry season, which runs from November to March. The vegetation of the country ranges from mangrove forests in the delta area of the south most part of the country through tropical rain forests and the Sudan savanna, to the Sahel savannah in the extreme north. The temperature in the southern part of the country is relatively stable and seldom exceeds 32o centigrade while in the north, it ranges from 10 to 36o centigrade. Nigeria is by far the most populous country in Africa. Her population of about 120 million makes her the largest concentration of black people worldwide. In fact, one of every four African is a Nigerian. The pre-colonial history of the area now known as Nigeria was dominated by empires and kingdoms such as Benin, the Hausa States, kanem-Bornu, Old Oyo, the Niger Delta States, the city States of Old Calabar as well as republican units such as the Igbo, the Ibibio and the Tiv. The Artistic sophistication of the famous Ife and Benin bronzes, as well as the terra cotta of Nok and the bronze works of Igbo-Ukwu, demonstrate the advanced socio-cultural development of these pre-colonial entities. Nigeria as a state is young. Its formal beginning was marked by the Berlin Conference of 1884 to 1885 at which the European Powers partitioned the African continent among themselves. This arbitrary division, sometimes cutting across ethnic groups and political entities, established the current boundaries which most states inherited at independence. The inviolability of these colonially-inherited boundaries has formed a major plank of inter-state relations in Africa. Between 1861 - 1914, Britain took control of the area now known as Nigeria.
Following nationalist agitation beginning from the 1920s, Nigeria attained its independence from Britain on October 1, 1960. Three years later, Nigeria became a Republic. At independence, Nigeria adopted the Westminster style parliamentary system of government. On January 15, 1966, the military overthrew the elected government commencing an era of military rule which lasted until 1979. In October 1979, there was a return to democratic government with an executive president and an elected legislature. This second attempt at democracy was again aborted, in December 1983, by military intervention. It was not until 1999 that Nigeria was returned to the present democratic rule,
Nigeria is a federal republic comprising of thirty six states. These are: Abia, Adamawa, Akwa Ibom, Anambra, Bauchi, Bayelsa, Benue, Borno, Cross River, Delta, Ebonyi, Edo, Ekiti, Enugu, Imo, Jigawa, Kaduna, Kano, Katsina, Kebbi, Kogi, Kwara, Lagos,
Nasarawa, Niger, Ogun, Ondo, Osun, Oyo, Plateau, Rivers, Sokoto, Taraba, Yobe, and Zamfara. The present seat of government is Abuja, the new federal capital territory. Nigeria has substantial quantities of minerals like petroleum, natural gas, coal, columbite, gold, limestone, manganese, tin and uranium. In fact, Nigeria is one of the world largest producers of petroleum and a member of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries. Nigeria's population provides a large human resource pool and it has invested substantially in training and development of its manpower. In spite of its great economic potential, Nigeria is a developing country whose economy depends largely on the export of petroleum for its foreign exchange earnings. But with proper management the future of Nigeria is secure. Its industrial base is large enough to meet domestic requirements and exports to her neighbors.


The Ministry has been faced by myriads of challenges engendered by the ever-increasing tempo of the government's socio-political and economic reforms. It had to stretch its human and material resources to be able to carry the enlarged responsibility of formulating, implementing, monitoring, and reviewing the necessary policies for adequate information dissemination in Nigeria with its diverse socio-political and cultural background. The Ministry had to establish a virile division to handle Nigeria's external publicity since Nigeria is always at the forefront in taking decisions on sensitive international issues, especially those that affect Africa. The goal was, and still is, to effectively and efficiently assist in publicizing and executing Nigeria's domestic and foreign policy objectives in order to generate international respect for the country and its citizens. The then administrations had a very strong bias for the rural areas, but the Ministry discovered that print and electronic media are highly concentrated in the urban centers. The situation amounted to the neglect of the rural areas in media matters. The Ministry, during the period under review, had to create a division to bridge the information gap between the urban and rural communities. The division evolves public campaign strategies for the mobilization of public awareness on development issues. The Department of Culture & Archives had also played a crucial role in the propagation of our cultural heritage and the preservation of records vital for communication. There is no doubt that the Federal Ministry of Information and Culture, in collaboration with its parastatals, form the pivot of public enlightenment in the country. It was a rewarding experience when the Ministry conducted a national public opinion poll and the result showed that 65% of respondents agreed with the statement that "A country can never develop if it relies on other nations for food for its citizens and raw materials for its industries" Consequently, those respondents saw the need for Government to ban the importation of raw materials and food that could be locally produced. The survey further showed that an increasing number of Nigerians agreed that the Structural Adjustment Policy (SAP) was making Nigerians work harder, making people eat food produced locally, making Nigerians more self-reliant and had resulted in an increase in the marketing of locally-produced and manufactured goods. The Ministry was also alive to its responsibilities when the government announced the Transition to Civil Rule program. It had been campaigning for the hitch-free emergence of a Third Republic. The parastatals in the Ministry have also been faced with enormous challenges in the past seven years. With the re-marriage, so to say, of Information and Culture into one fortified household, in January 1992, the Ministry, proudly housed sixteen parastatals straddling both the Information and Culture sectors.

The Information Sector Consists of:

(a) The Nigerian Television Authority (NTA)
(b) The Federal Radio Corporation of Nigeria (FRCN)
(c) The Voice of Nigeria (VON)
(d) The News Agency of Nigeria (NAN)
(e) The Daily Times of Nigeria Plc (DTN)
(f) The New Nigerian Newspaper Limited
(g) The Nigerian Media Council (NMC)
(h) The Nigerian Institute of Public Relations (NIPR)
(i) The Advertising Practitioners Council of Nigeria (APCON)
(j) The Nigerian Film Corporation (NFC)

The Culture Sector Consists of:

(k) The National Commission for Museum & Monuments (NCMM)
(l) The National Council for Arts & Culture (NCAC)
(m) The Center for Black & African Art & Civilization (CBAAC)
(n) The National Theater
(o) The National Troupe of Nigeria, and
(p) The Nigerian Copyright Council (NCC)

Department Of Culture

Nigeria has witnessed in recent years, with apparent helplessness, the relegation of its cultural heritage including its noble traditions, values, ideas and concepts, especially by its youths, in favor of hastily ingested and ill-digested foreign cultures. Nigeria has also experienced urbanization and modernization which, in the absence of culturally relevant planning and regulation, have created ugliness in the physical and psychological existence of its citizens. The subservient role, to which culture, has been relegated in the past in the considered priorities of national plans, has largely undermined the national potential for political unification and social stabilization. Within the modern context of international relations, the projection and affirmation of a nation's cultural image beyond its boundaries is a key element of its image abroad and its effectiveness in international relations. Nigeria's negative and distorted image can benefit especially from the use of its arts and culture in international diplomacy. The revitalization of our endangered culture has become the major task of the Ministry of Information and Culture. The ministry has tried to mobilize Nigerians at all levels and to instill in the people and their institutions the spirit of pride in their cultures. The Government has in the past years, laid a solid foundation for a national orientation and new directions in national cultural development by approving a cultural policy for Nigeria, becoming a signatory to the establishment of the World Decade for Cultural Development (WDCD) and actively promoting its objectives, and acceding to the OAU Cultural Charter and the African Cultural Common Market. Cultural mobilization has thus become increasingly important in developing inward-looking strategies, promoting national consciousness, national self-reliance and national unity which create a conducive atmosphere for progress and development. For the effective mobilization of the country, the ministry has put in place an effective machinery for national co-ordination, the orchestration of all activities and the synchronisation of programs and targets of a national cultural policy that promotes a dynamic leadership role for the Federal Government.


The Department of Culture is the policy organ of the Federal Government in the administration of arts and culture in Nigeria. It has responsibility for advising the minister and chief executive on the technical aspects of the cultural policy and initiating principles for the development of institutional infrastructure for meeting institutional needs. Implementing international and inter ministerial cultural co-operation exchanges, as well as ensuring an adequate measure of coherence in all cultural actions. During the period under review, the cultural department has performed its functions through publications, documentation and enlightenment programs, promoting the accessibility of theaters to the public and grants in aid to voluntary and non-governmental cultural associations. The Department of Culture also has the responsibility of acting as a midwife to new parastatals like the National Troupe of Nigeria, the National Theater of Nigeria and the National Gallery of Art, and ensuring that they are provided with adequate structures and objectives.
The past years have witnessed significant achievements in the pursuit of cultural objectives by the department. A cultural policy for Nigeria was approved by the government and officially launched in 1988. In 1988, the World Decade for Cultural Development (WDCD) 1988-1997, was formally launched by the President who is the WDCD Grand Patron. Orientation courses for key officials in government and the diplomatic corps were organized to infuse a cultural dimension in development. Existing facilities were up-graded for improving skills and techniques particularly in computerization, documentation and information storage and retrieval. A National Crafts Advisory Council was established and extension services introduced to improve skills at the grass-roots level in marketing techniques, introduction of new product lines and technologies, particularly in the production of cultural goods. The council served as a pivot for implementing the objectives of the UNESCO Decade of Craft Development Program for 1990 - 1997. In anticipation of the OAU African Plan for establishing an African Common Market which places a premium on handicrafts and applied arts, Nigeria proposed the establishment, in Abuja, of a Regional Center for Craft Development. The center will provide a craft data base as well as interdisciplinary and inter sectoral research programs for upgrading techniques, developing tools, equipment and raw materials. Nigeria enjoyed observer status in the World Decade for Cultural Development (WDCD) Inter-Governmental Committee until the 26th General Conference held at UNESCO, Paris, from 15th October to 7th November 1991, when it was elected into the 35-member committee. In June 1987, the Nigeria National Committee was set up by the Nigerian National Commission for UNESCO (NATCOM) with the department as chairman while the secretariat was based in NATCOM. The National Committee on the WDCD was charged with the responsibility of formulating programs of national interest and relevance to the Decade Plan of Action in Nigeria. The committee has held four plenary meetings during which it achieved the following goals based on the four cardinal objectives of the WDCD;

* It has formulated a broad-based outline of projects and activities for the ten years in Nigeria based on the four main objectives of the Decade; and
* It has worked out specific projects and activities for the 1989-90/1991-92 biennial, identified implementing agencies and ascertained sources of funding.

The theme adopted by the National Committee for the Decade in Nigeria is:
"Culture Builds A Nation."

The Patrons of the Decade in Nigeria:

A Committee of Patrons made up of the ministers of the following target ministries; Education, Trade & Tourism, Information & Culture, Science & Technology, External Affairs and Finance & Economic Development was set up. The Committee of Patrons briefed the president who is the grand patron of the Decade in the program of action in Nigeria. The President had to approve the under listed priority projects for the Decade in Nigeria in order to mobilize the masses to actively participate in the Decade's projects.

* The National Institute for cultural Orientation (NICO)
* The National Language Survey
* The National Gallery for Contemporary Art, and
* Guide to Source of Nigerian History.

In addition, January 31 every year was declared WDCD Day in Nigeria. The Nigerian example influenced the inter-governmental committee into designating a day the World Culture Day. May 31 which was selected, clashed with the date designated World No Smoking Day. At the 26th General Conference of UNESCO in 1991, May 21 was set aside as WDCD Day for Cultural Development.
In 1990, action was initiated for the implementation of the following approved decade projects in Nigeria for 1990/91 biennium:

* Nigeria Copyright Information Management and Enforcement.
* Training Programs for Rural Women and Youth in Cultural Development.
* A National Exhibition depicting the Craftsmanship of the Nigerian People from source
materials to finished product.
* Establishment of a National Institute for Cultural Orientation.
* National Crafts Survey.
* A Regional Seminar on the Collection, Analysis and Documentation of the Oral Traditions in
* Restoration and Conservation of National Monuments in Nigeria.
* Developing Educational Activities for Children and Youth in Nigeria Museums.
* Regional Workshops on Creative Writing, Arts, Design and Book Development.
* Comprehensive Modernization of Archival Infrastructure and the Development of Records Management Practice in the Country.

Project for 1992/93 Biennium.

* A Regional Center for Craft Development;
* Training of Functionaries for Copyright Administration in Nigeria;
* Production of a Comprehensive and Authoritative Igbo Language Dictionary;
* National Archives Project for Nigeria;
* Development of Orthographic and Writing System for Minor Language in the West African
* Production of pilot film, for Children adapting traditional Nigerian Puppetry and Masquerade
* Life Renewal for the rural Woman: A case study of Women (Television Production)
* Establishment of a Film Archive/Institute.

Cultural Diplomacy:

In view of the growing recognition of culture as the bulwark of international diplomacy, the Department embarked on a program of cultural embellishment of Nigeria's missions abroad, so as to give them a Nigerian character and equip them with reference materials on Nigerian Culture.
The department increased participation in cultural exchanges with Nigeria's neighbors, the diaspora and strategic countries and the world, so as to advertise our productive capacity and reinforce this in international conferences, including UNESCO and the African Conference of African Ministers of Culture. Nigeria consequently became a signatory to both the World Decade for Cultural Development (WDCD) and the African Cultural Common Market Treaty regarded as a cornerstone for the establishment of an African Economic community.
To date, 50 cultural agreements have been signed with other countries including the following which were signed within the period under review:

Nigeria/Angola Agreement in 1986
Nigeria/Sierra Leone " 1988
Nigeria/Ethiopia " 1989
Nigeria/Jamaica " 1989
Nigeria/Philippines " 1990
Nigeria/Portugal " 1990
Nigeria/China " 1990
Nigeria/Zimbabwe " 1991
Nigeria/Trinidad & Tobago " 1991
Nigeria/Namibia " 1991

Other major achievements recorded so far include the follow:

* Launching of the Cultural Policy (1988);
* The approval by the National Council on Culture and Social Welfare of its implementation
strategies (1990)
* The formulation of a cultural diplomacy package for the country (1991);
* Promulgation of the Copyright Decree and the Establishment of the Nigerian Copyright
Council; and
* Publication of Nigeria Magazine (Nigeria's Oldest Culture Magazine and special publications
now used as textbooks in institutions of higher learning.

National Troupe of Nigeria:

The National Troupe of Nigeria was established on March 2, 1989. Before then the Cultural Policy for Nigeria which had mentioned the need to have a National Troupe of Nigeria in section 6.3 (6.3.3) had been inaugurated in 1988. The Decree No. 47 establishing the National Troupe was released in Lagos on November 19, 1991.
The objectives of the National Troupe are:

(a) to encourage creativity in order to achieve excellence in the performing arts;
(b) to encourage the discovery and development of talents in the performing arts;
(c) to achieve high artistic productions specifically designed for national and international tours;
(d) to ensure that its productions are geared towards national aspirations;
(e) to encourage the development of the children theater;
(f) to ensure the preservation of the repertoire of the troupe; and
(g) to generate funds for government.

The professional and commercial attributes of the National Troupe of Nigeria has spanned both national and international performances, each promoting Nigeria's rich cultural heritage.
International performances include those at:

1. Venezuela 1990
2. Cairo, Egypt September 1991
3. Korea April 1992
4. France June 1992
5. America July 1992
6. Japan July/August 1992

The national performances are numerous and usually two-pronged in terms of commissioned and invited ones.


The need for copyright protection in any nation is predicated on the recognition that those who create for the growth and development of society deserve, not only acknowledgment of their creativity and genius, but also a conducive environment of national cultures. Culture, in its widest sense, is the bedrock of the true national development. It is imperative therefore, to encourage and protect cultural creators through copyright legislation. The first copyright law in Nigeria was made applicable to the country by Order-in-Council No. 912 of 24th June, 1912. The order extended the provisions of the British Copyright Act of 1911. "to certain British Protectorates." Under its provisions, the works of Nigerian creators, especially musicians, enjoyed copyright protection and economic benefits through royalty payment by the Performing Rights Society (PRS) of London. However, the first indigenous copyright legislation was promulgated in Nigeria, ten years after independence in 1970. The decree, which provisions were mainly fashioned after the 1911 law, proved seriously inadequate to stem the trend of copyright abuses in a dynamic post-independence Nigeria. Various efforts were made to redress the situation, but
it was not until 1988, that the first concrete step was taken to review the law. Accordingly, Decree No.47 was promulgated in 1988 after a national seminar, sponsored by the Ministries of Information and Culture, Education, Justice and Trade, has examined all relevant aspects of copyright administration in Nigeria. The 1988 decree has a number of provisions designed to effectively curb the menace of copyright abuse in Nigeria and accord right owners, greater control over their creative endeavors. The law also provides for the protection
of expressions designed to effectively curb the menace of copyright abuse in Nigeria and accord right owners, greater control over their creative endeavors.
The law also provides for the protection of expressions of folklore. Under its provisions, an administrative Council was inaugurated on August 19, 1989. It has a twenty-three member board. Members of the board are drawn from among right owners, law enforcement agencies, the Ministries of Justice, Education and Youth Development. Information and Culture. The council has responsibility for all matters affecting copyright in Nigeria; that is, monitoring and supervising Nigeria's position in relation to international conventions; advising and regulating conditions for the conclusion of bilateral and multilateral agreements between Nigeria and any other country as well as enlightening and informing the public on matters relating to copyright. The council has succeeded in increasing the level of awareness of the public on copyright and the provisions of the law through its various public enlightenment programs of seminars, conferences and workshops. Public awareness has proved immensely beneficial to right owners who have been encouraged to seek redress whenever their rights are infringed. Another achievement made, is the anti-piracy campaign inaugurated in May 1991, and aimed at fighting the illegal exploitation of creative works in the country. The council has proposed guidelines for the establishment of collecting societies in the country. Collecting societies monitor the use of author's works, they also collect royalties on such works and distribute them to the authors. The copyright system is an international one. There is therefore an international protection system of rights which enables the enforcement of authors and protection of rights globally through conventions and multilateral agreements. The major conventions include the Universal Copyright Convention, the Berne Convention and Rome Convention. Nigeria is a member of the Universal Copyright Convention which offers a 25 - year period of protection on creative works. Efforts was underway to ensure Nigeria's membership of the Berne convention for the protection of literary and artistic works, which offers a 70 or 50-year protection period depending on the work. Since its inception, the copyright council has received international support for its programs. A number of agencies have offered technical and professional assistance to the Council by way of training and consultancy. These agencies include: the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO); the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO); the International Confederation of Societies of Authors and Composers (CISAC); the United States Information Services (USIS) in Nigeria, and the Copyright Office of the United States Library of Congress. The promulgation of the 1988 Copyright Law has created awareness among copyright owners and users. The issue of piracy being addressed through the council's anti-piracy program nationwide has given hope to creators of works who are now confident that the Government is determined to protect their intellectual output. This confidence which assures adequate remuneration for the creators is bound to encourage them to produce more works for the development of the nation's culture.


The general administration and development of Nigerian Arts and Culture backed by decrees and proclamations have caused a cultural re-awakening of the Nigerian populace including the traditional chieftains, promoters, practitioners and academics. The development processes which involve the provision of facilities, skill development, the encouragement of practitioners through grants and sponsorships, exposition and the vocational instruction and programs for promoting true Nigerian values, have formed the background for assessing the achievements of the Council's set goals.

Craft Development:

In recognition of the role of Nigerian traditional crafts in the nation's economic development, the council established a National Crafts Development Center, situated in Lagos and within the precincts of the National Theater, the center maintains resident craftsmen and women, provides a market outlet for Nigerian craft locally and abroad, and serves as an information center for tourists, dealers and collectors of local crafts. It has also provided a link between Nigerian craftsmen and related agencies of the public.

National Festival of Arts & Culture (NAFEST):

The event provides a forum for exposing Nigeria's diverse cultures including her oral tradition and folklore. It is believed that in this way Nigerians will understand themselves. The festival which climaxes in local and state festivals also provides an avenue for the development of skills through healthy competition. The choice of a theme for each year has caused an in-depth treatment of the different components of our culture. In keeping with the National Cultural Policy, the festival has continued to serve as a basis for promoting national unity. It was held in Lagos - 1988. Bauchi - 1989, Kaduna - 1990, and Abuja - 1992. The events of the festival are generally designed to focus on the development and improvement of existing situations to gain support for the activities of the present day and its realities. Based on the urgent need to consolidate the gains of the festival three specialized galleries, Durbar - Kaduna, Masquerades - Enugu, Regatta - Uyo have been approved for the establishment. Also a traditional furnished apartment for permanent exhibition is to be mounted at Abuja as one of the tourist attractions of the Federal Capital Territory.

Children's Arts Center:

In line with the present administration's objectives to prepare the Nigerian child for leadership roles, the council established a Children's Arts Center with programs of activities aimed at engaging their minds usefully. Changing life-styles and acculturation established the need for programs designed to arrest or minimize the impact of cultural disequilibrium and to integrate elements of Nigerian culture and values in the process of the child's development. The center organizes lectures and workshops intended to provide orientation and early choice of profession. The activities of the center are also directed towards channeling the energy of the child towards creative and productive ventures from disruptive and anti-social activities.

Liaison Offices:

The council, in order to broaden its activities and tap the limitless artistic and cultural resources of the country, has opened liaison offices in the eight states and Abuja. Plans are on to relocate the headquarters of the Council to Abuja to enable it to effectively co-ordinate the work of cultural promotion in the country.

Film and Video Documentation:

The NCAC has successfully co-produced a full length feature film with the National Film and Television School (UK) called Kasarmu Ce. With the acquisition of the National Gallery of Modern Arts and the National Hall of Fame, the council is poised to walk into the 20th Century as the vanguard of cultural promotion and a crucial reference point in this era of cultural and economic diplomacy. The council has successfully documented the national festivals on video cassettes which are being put on sale and sent to Nigerian embassies abroad, for the propagation of Nigerian culture. The council library has been re-organized and is now stocked with cultural books, both produced by the Council and other books:

(i) Culture, Economy and National Development;
(ii) Culture and Decision-Making in Nigeria;
(iii) Craft and Industrialization;
(iv) Documentation and Cultural Development;
(v) Culture and Book Industry in Nigeria;
(vi) Dance in Nigeria; and
(vii) Culture Scope - A Journal of NCAC.

The Council has as one of its development programs, the establishment of cultural centers in all states of the federation to help in harnessing, developing and co-ordinating all the cultural activities of the country.


In 1988, the Federal Government of Nigeria approved a cultural policy for Nigeria. The following is the preamble to that policy:

1. Introduction:

1.1 Culture is the totality of the way of life evolved by a people in their attempts to meet the challenge of living in their environment, which gives order and meaning to their social, political, economic, aesthetic and religious norms and modes of organization thus distinguishing a people from their neighbors.

1.2 Culture comprises material, institutional, philosophical and creative aspects. The material aspect has to do with artefact in its broadest form (namely: tools, clothing, medicine, utensils, housing, etc.); the institutional deals with the political, social, legal and economic structures erected to help achieve material and spiritual objectives; while the philosophical is concerned with ideas, beliefs and values; the creative concerns a people's literature (oral or written) as well as their visual and performing arts which are normally molded by, as well as help to mold other aspects of culture.

1.3 Culture is not merely a return to the customs of the past. It embodies the attitude of a people to the future of their traditional values faced with the demands of modern technology which is an essential factor of development and progress.

1.4 When, therefore, we talk of self-reliance, self-sufficiency and a national identity as the core of our national development objectives, we are referring to culture as the fountain spring of all policies whether educational, social, political or economical. The strategies of national development would thus depend on the understanding of the culture, the adaptation of its elements for political, educational and economic development, as well as its strengths for social integration and development.

2. Scope:

2.1 In the effort to elaborate and work out a cultural policy, the real task is not so much to
prescribe a normative definition of culture as to grapple with the understanding of the
nation's cultural conditions, needs, aspirations and goals, and on the basis of such
understanding, to enunciate a set of rules, decide on requirements and priorities and sketch
the ways and means for attaining the laid down goals.

2.2 A cultural policy is imperative in order to incorporate such an essential part of our history
into our general national development process because culture, as a force, has both economic
and political consequences in the life of any nation.

2.3 It is equally part of the process of retrieving and restoring our history and our heritage, in
order to protect and project them for posterity. As such, it forms an integral part of our
educational process.

2.4 A sound cultural policy can determine how best this vital element can be used as a factor in
our domestic and foreign policies.

2.5 Finally, a cultural policy would facilitate the management, rational selection and
determination of cultural programs with emphasis on specific areas of government

3. Objectives of the Cultural Policy:

3.1 The policy shall serve to mobilize and motivate the people by disseminating and propagating
ideas which promote national pride, solidarity and consciousness.

3.2 The policy shall serve to evolve from our plurality, a national culture, the stamp of which will
be reflected in African and world affairs.

3.3 The policy shall promote an educational system that motivates and stimulates creativity and
draws largely on our tradition and values, namely: respect for humanity and human dignity,
for legitimate authority and the dignity of labor, and respect for positive Nigerian moral and
religious values.

3.4 The policy shall promote creativity in the fields of arts, science and technology, ensure the
continuity of traditional skills and sports and their progressive updating to serve modern
development needs as our contribution to world growth of culture and ideas.

3.5 The policy shall establish a code of behavior compatible with our tradition of humanism and a
disciplined moral society.

3.6 The policy shall sustain environmental and social conditions which enhance the quality of life,
produce responsible citizenship and an ordered society.

3.7 The policy shall seek to enhance the efficient management of national resources and skills.

3.8 The policy shall enhance national self-reliance and self-sufficiency, and elect our cultural
heritage and national aspiration in the process of industrialization.

4. Methods of Implementation:

4.1 The Cultural Policy shall be expressed in four broad categories of state action, namely:

(a) preservation of culture,
(b) promotion of culture,
(c) presentation of culture, and
(d) the establishment of administrative structure and the provision of funds for its implementation.

4.2 Preservation of Culture:

4.2.1 Cultural preservation in this context shall relate to the promotion of cultural property
whether of concrete or non-concrete nature, past or present, written or oral, or relating to
values of facts of history.

4.2.2 Its objective is not to ossify or mystify, but to ensure harmony with contemporary realities
and the demands of change and development and to prevent a mindless sweeping away of
our cultural heritage; a situation which can only result in disorderly change and societal
instability and eventual creation of a people completely cut off from its cultural roots.

4.2.3 Cultural preservation, to be meaningful and have integrity, must be aided by research.
Documentation on audio and video tapes, film, etc., will constitute an important part of this

4.3 Promotion of Culture:

4.3.1 The state shall take steps to encourage the integration of traditional values into the fabric
of our daily life.

4.3.2 The state shall promote formal and informal education as vehicles of inculcating these
values in consonance with our national aspirations.

4.3.3 The state shall ensure the provision of conscious cultural dimensions to all aspects of
national planning.

4.3.4 The state shall give practitioners in the arts relevant roles and assignments in the
development process.

4.3.5 The state shall foster the development of Nigerian languages and pride in Nigerian culture.

4.4 Presentation of Culture:

4.4.1 Cultural presentation refers to the means by which culture is disseminated. Its objective is
to facilitate the accessibility of arts and culture to the widest spectrum of Nigerians.

4.4.2 Nigerian culture shall be presented through the popular vehicles of the theater, films,
exhibitions, seminars, workshops and publications. Presentation shall involve the active
use of the mass media.

4.5 Administration and Financing of Culture:

4.5.1 The state shall establish administrative structures and institutions for promoting the
objectives of the cultural policy.

4.5.2 The state shall provide the framework to enable these administrative structures and
objectives of the cultural policy.

4.5.3 State action shall enhance the generation of revenue from private sources.
On the implementation of that policy, we are only going to look at how it affects music
under the various appropriate headings.

6. The Arts:

6.1.1 The state shall preserve, promote and establish conducive conditions for creativity by
encouraging the establishment of strong national professional associations for artists,
authors, dramatists, film makers, etc.

6.1.2 The state shall promote and encourage the establishment of writers' clubs, art clubs,
creative centers, for encouraging creativity and popularizing the arts.

6.1.3 The state shall support the associations and clubs through government subventions, grants
and other forms of assistance.

6.1.4 The state shall encourage, through these creative movements and government institutions,
international links and exchanges for the nation's developmental and cultural benefits.

6.1.5 The state shall make provision for the custodianship of international cultural materials in
order to bring into proper focus, Nigerian culture in the Black and African world.

6.1.6 The state shall establish institutions and Programs for the preservation, presentation,
promotion and development of the literary, performing and visual arts.

6.1.7 The state shall promote the continuity of Traditional arts, and the development ofNigerian
arts and artists, and give full scope to artists to project their art and skills as part of
national growth and development.

6.1.8 The state shall promote the functionality of the arts in order to enhance their viability.

6.1.9 The state shall enact laws to protect Nigerian artists and writers and ensure that they
enjoy the fullest material and spiritual benefits from the products of their artistic and
literacy works.

6.1.10 The state shall guarantee freedom of artistic expression and make institutional and Infra
structural provisions for housing and developing the arts and promote competitions,
expositions and talent hunts in all the arts.

6.3 Performing Arts:

6.3.1 The state shall preserve and present Nigerian music, dance and drama on film, video and audio tapes, slides and in written form, etc.

6.3.2 The state shall establish a National Troupe of Nigeria whose repertoire shall draw their materials from drama, dance and music.

6.3.3 The National Troupe of Nigeria shall be part of the National Arts Theater.

7.7 Theaters:

7.7.1 The state shall promote the establishment of Theaters which shall be sources of education, leisure and entertainment to the people through presentation of concerts, revenue, musicals, operas, plays, film shows, etc.

7.7.2 The state shall promote mobile and non-mobile theaters and the continuity of indigenous manifestations like puppetry and itinerant players.

7.8 Festivals:

7.8.1 The state shall recognize festivals as periodic celebrations, marking significant events in the life of the community of the transmission of perceptions, ideals, aspirations, and philosophies of the people for meaningful living. They may be a re-enactment or re-creation of history or tradition or religion; or contemporary expositions organized by the state or education institutions for talent- hunts or for promoting and developing the arts. They may also have as their subject, sports and games.

7.8.2 The state shall:

(a) Promote traditional festivals in order to preserve them `in situ' so that they may continue to be factors of communal interaction and cohesion in their localities and develop interaction of larger national and international dimensions;

(b) Promote arts festivals at the federal, state and local government levels for the purpose of discovering talents, developing skills and promoting creativity in the arts;

(c) Promote and develop indigenous forms of arts and sports, as Nigeria's contributions to world culture and civilization; and

(d) Preserve them by documentation on film, video and audio tapes and other methods.

8.4 Newspapers and Magazines:

8.4.1 The state shall regard printing materials and equipment as education.

8.4.2 The state shall promote the newspaper industry through concessional Tarriffs, direct subsidy or wavering of duties on printing materials and equipment.

8.4.3 The state shall encourage Nigerian newspapers to provide adequate coverage for arts and culture and promote high critical standards through awards and prizes to journalists.

8.4.4 The state shall encourage the production of newspapers in Nigerian languages, children's magazines, and comics for promoting Nigerian culture and values.

Since the policy in 1988, all the proposed parastatals, but one, have been set up. The exception is the National Academy for the Arts, which is number nine on the list. State subsidiaries of the academy cannot be set-up until after the national body is established. Moreover, we find under section 10.3, a lot of other unfulfilled promises.

10.3 Financing of Cultural Activities:

10.3.1 Consistent with the resolutions of the inter-governmental conference on Cultural Policies in Africa (Accra 1975) and the UNESCO Conference on Cultural Policies in Mexico (1982), to which Nigeria is a signatory, cultural activities shall be funded by:

(a) government,

(b) non-governmental, industrial, commercial, financial and other Organizations operating in Nigeria making voluntary financial contributions which shall be tax- deductible,

(c) a national endowment fund to which government, organizations and individuals shall contribute,

(d) percentage contributions from entertainment tax charged during artistic performances and presentations,

(e) special funding and endowment of specific research projects in related institutions and establishments by Private sector organizations in commerce and industry,

(f) compulsory percentage contribution from building budgets for landscaping and environmental planning, and

(g) public earnings from cultural activities.

10.3.2 The state shall enact appropriate legislation for enforcing the implementation of the sources of funding culture as enumerated in 10.3.1.

It is our belief that the scrapping of the short-lived Ministry of Culture was the greatest set-back to the implementation of all aspects of the cultural policy. It is our prayer and hope that soon, another agency to oversee the implementation and monitoring of the cultural policy will be set up. This agency must have the status of a ministry.


In this regard, we shall first look at the National Policy on Education to see what it says about music education. Education in Nigeria is no more a private enterprise, but a huge Government venture that has witnessed progressively, its complete and dynamic intervention and active participation. The Federal Government of Nigeria has adopted Education as an instrument par excellence for effecting national development. It is only natural then that Government should clarify the philosophy and objectives that underlie its current massive investment in Education. It is Government's wish that any existing contradictions, ambiguities, and lack of uniformity in educational practices in the different parts of the federation be removed to ensure an even and orderly development of the country.

Government has also stated that for the benefit of all citizens the country's educational goals in terms of its relevance to the needs of the individual as well as the kind of society desired in relation to the environment and the realities of the modern world and rapid social changes, should be clearly set out. These were the factors which led to the Government summoning in 1973, a seminar of distinguished educational experts, under the chairmanship of Chief S.O. Adebo a former Permanent Representative of Nigeria at the United Nations and the then Chairman of the National Universities Commission, to deliberate on all aspects of a National Policy on Education. These experts, who were drawn from a wide range of interests, included representatives of both Christian and Islamic Religious Organizations, the universities, National Universities' Commission, interested external agencies, the ministries and organizations in the private and public sectors who were interested in the end-products of Education for purposes of employment, women's organizations and others. Quite a good part of the present document is based on the recommendations of the seminar, modified in its passage through the various organs of Government which examined the recommendations as well as by the passage of time which made some recommendations no longer acceptable in the light of changed circumstances. Since education is a dynamic instrument of change, this policy will need to be constantly reviewed to ensure its adequacy and continued relevance to national needs and objectives.


For the philosophy of Nigerian education to be in harmony with the country's national objectives, it has to be geared towards self-realization, better human relationships, individual and national efficiency, effective citizenship, national consciousness, national unity, as well as towards social, cultural, economic, political, scientific and technological progress;
* The training of the mind in the understanding of the world around; and the acquisition of appropriate skills, abilities and competence, both mental and physical, as equipment for the individual to live in and contribute to the development of his society;
* Inculcating in the child the spirit of enquiry and creativity through the exploration of nature and the local environment, playing with toys, artistic and musical activities;

In order to encourage aesthetic, creative and musical activities, Government will make staff and facilities available for the teaching of creative arts and crafts and music in primary schools. Specialist teachers for particular subjects such as science, physical education, language arts with special emphasis on reading, music, fine art, domestic science, Government will increase the supply of such specialist teachers by providing adequate facilities in the teacher training colleges and will develop and project Nigerian Culture, art and language as well as the world's cultural heritage.

Core Subjects

1. English Language
2. One Nigerian Language
3. Mathematics
4. One of the following alternative subjects - Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
5. One of Literature in English, History and Geography.
6. Agricultural Science or a Vocational subject.

The core subjects are basic subjects which will enable a student to offer the arts or sciences at Higher Institutions of Education.


Every student will be expected to select 3 of these subjects depending on the choice of career up to the end of the second year and may drop one of the non-compulsory subjects out of the 9 subjects in the last year of the Senior Secondary School course.

Biology Bible Knowledge Physics
Islamic Studies Chemistry Arabic Studies
Additional Maths. Metal Works Commerce
Electronics Economics Drawing
Drawing Book-keeping Woodwork
Typewriting Auto-Mechanics Shorthand
Music History Art
English Literature French Geography
Physical Education Agricultural Science Health Science
Home Economics Government. etc.

Government will take measure to see that our culture is kept alive through art, music and other cultural studies in our schools, as well as through local, state and national festivals of the arts. There is a need to intensify and diversify university programs for the development of high level manpower within the context of the needs of the economy. This should not prejudice intellectual training in basic sciences and the liberal arts.

Widespread ignorance among Nigerian groups about one another and about themselves will be remedied by instituting a compulsory first-year course in the social organization, customs, culture and history of our various people. The award of degrees will be made conditional upon the passing of the paper in this course.
Universities and other levels of the education system will be required to pay greater attention to the development of scientific orientation. To this end, more colleges of technology and polytechnics will be opened in the bid to improve technological and science education.

The ratio of Science to Liberal Arts students in our universities has been fixed at 60:40 during the Third National Development Plan Period. This ratio will continue to be reviewed in accordance with the manpower needs of the country.
Technical Education is here defined as "that aspect of education which leads to the acquisition of practical and applied skills as well as basic scientific knowledge," (to provide the technical knowledge and vocational skills necessary for agricultural, industrial, commercial and economic development).

Cultural and Creative Arts

It is clear from the relevant sections we have lifted from the policy on Education that music has not been given a professional status, otherwise, it would have been put under professional education or technical education and given full attention. The policy, however, provides for some music from the pre-primary school level to the higher education level with the name music not always mentioned but just implied. Our policies, both educational and cultural have not accorded music that status that will allow it full and proper development. Music must be treated like all professions if it must grow.


Samuel Ekpe Akpabot (1932-2000)
By Godwin Sadoh

Was born on 3 October, 1932, in Uyo, Akwa Ibom State of Nigeria. He went to Lagos in 1943 for his high school education at the renowned King's College, a school well-known for its tradition in European classical music. In addition to King’s College, the Cathedral Church of Christ Choir, Lagos, was another major center for training budding classical musicians in Nigeria. The church has produced some of the most famous internationally reputed composers and musicologists such as Fela Sowande, Ayo Bankole, Christopher Oyesiku, Lazarus Ekwueme, and Godwin Sadoh. Akpabot received significant introduction to European classical music as a chorister at the famous Cathedral Church of Christ Choir, Lagos, under the leadership of Thomas Ekundayo Phillips. At this church, Akpabot sang choral works by famous European composers such as Handel's Messiah and Mendelssohn's Elijah. In 1954, Akpabot proceeded to the Royal College of Music, London, to study organ and trumpet. His teachers included John Addison, Osborn Pisgow and Herbert Howells. He later went on to study at the Trinity College of Music. On his return to Nigeria with two British diplomas, Associate of the Royal College of Music (ARCM) and Licentiate of the Trinity College of Music, London (LTCL), he was appointed as broadcaster at the Nigerian Broadcasting Corporation, Lagos. It was also in 1959 that his compositional career begun.

At the age of thirty, Akpabot left the Nigerian Broadcasting Corporation for the University of Nigeria, Nsukka, to become one of the founding faculty members of the Department of Music. Between 1962 and 1967, Akpabot wrote four works which can be considered as the epitome of nationalistic creativity. The works are Scenes from Nigeria for Orchestra (1962), Three Nigerian Dances for String Orchestra and Timpani (1962), Ofala, a tone poem for wind orchestra and five African instruments, and Cynthia's Lament, a tone poem for soloist, wind orchestra and six African instruments (1965). Ofala and Cynthia's Lament were commissioned by the then director of the American Wind Symphony Orchestra, Robert Austin Boudreau. These two works were later premiered in Pittsburgh in 1963 and 1965. Ofala won the first prize in 1972 in a competition for African composers organized by the African Center of the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA); forty-one African countries were represented in this competition.

Akpabot studied at the University of Chicago where he obtained a Master's degree in Musicology and later went on to Michigan State University, Ann Arbor, where he received his Ph.D. degree in ethnomusicology and music education in 1975. He was a Visiting Scholar at the international programs of Michigan State University where he taught courses in African music at the music department. He also taught at the College of Education at Uyo, Nigeria, where he was Chairman of the Division of Arts and Head of the Department of Music. At the end of the civil war in 1970, Akpabot became a senior Research Fellow at the Institute of African Studies, University of Ife (now Obafemi Awolowo University). He was later appointed Senior Lecturer at the Institute of African Studies, University of Ibadan. Akpabot was appointed Professor of Music at the University of Uyo in 1995. Samuel Akpabot died in the year 2000 at Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria.

Samuel Akpabot’s music has been performed widely around the world by famous orchestras and choral groups such as the BBC Welsh Symphony (1965); Ann Arbor Symphony; University of Ife Collegium Musicum (1971, 1972, and 1973); Chicago Chamber Orchestra (1974); Church of the Holy Sepulcher, St. Louis, Missouri (1975); University High School Orchestra, St. Louis, Missouri (1975); Chapel of the Resurrection, University of Ibadan (1980 and 1981); Alabama Symphony (1984); Cincinnati Symphony, Milwaukee Symphony, and the Savannah Symphony. Presidential Command Performances of his works: President of Senegal (1980); Prime Minister of Zimbabwe (1981); and President of Kenya (1981). On May 5, 1984, the Alabama Symphony Orchestra, under the direction of Amerigo Marino, performed Akpabot’s Three Nigerian Dances at a Festival of Arts Concert tagged, “A Salute to Nigeria.” Since the specificity of the concert was to honor Nigerian musicians, it also featured Fela Sowande’s Folk Symphony and Babatunde Olatunji’s Kyrie and African Drum Fantasy. University of Wisconsin Symphony Orchestra performed Akpabot’s Three Nigerian Dances on October 22, 2006, at the Annette Recital Hall, University of Wisconsin, La Crosse. Samuel Akpabot was affiliated with several professional organizations including the African Studies Association, Society for Ethnomusicology, Performing Right Society (London), Trinity College of Music (London), International Folk Music Council, Nigerian School of Church Music (National Executive), Nigerian National Merit Awards Assessment Committee, All-Nigerian Conference on Foreign Policy, and Royal College of Organists, London.

Samuel Akpabot’s research and books are all geared towards furthering the cause of music education and culture in Nigeria and bringing African music into the mainstream of world music. He published five books: Masters of the Music (1958), Ibibio Music in Nigerian Culture (1975), Football in Nigeria (1985), Foundation of Nigerian Traditional Music (1986), and Form, Function, and Style in African Music (1998). He contributed numerous articles on Nigerian music in several reputable journals including, African Arts, African Music, Presence Africaine, International African Institute Bulletin, Journal of the New African Literature, Royal College of Music Magazine, and Black Perspective in Music. Akpabot contributed chapters in books such as Reflections on Afro-American Music, Anthology of Nigerian New Writing, Oral Traditional Poetry in Nigeria, Cultural Heritage in Nigerian Education, UNESCO Publications, and 25 Years of Nigerian Independence. Samuel Akpabot’s biography is listed in Who’s Who in African Literature—Germany (1972), Who’s Who in Black Music—United States (1977), International Who’s Who in Music—Great Britain (1977), International Who’s Who of Intellectuals—Great Britain (1980), Contemporary Authors—United States (1981), Contemporary Personalities—Italy (1981), Africa Who’s Who—Great Britain (1982), Who’s Who in the World—United States (1982), Who’s Who in the World—Great Britain (1982), Who’s Who in the Commonwealth—Great Britain (1982), Elected Personality of the Year in Italy (1984). For more information on the life and music of Samuel Akpabot, see Godwin Sadoh’s book, Samuel Akpabot: The Odyssey of a Nigerian Composer-Ethnomusicologist (2008).

The Late Ayo Bankole:
Citation by Akin Euba.

Ayo Bankole was born in May 1935 and early displayed high gifts for music. Ayo's father (who) was for many years principal organist of St. Peter's Church, Faji and his mother taught music at Queen's School, Ede.

Ayo left for London in 1957 on a Federal Government scholarship to study music at the Guildhall School of Music and Drama.

Ayo was an extremely popular student at the Guildhall School and soon got together a choir comprising fellow students which gave performances of his compositions, many of them in the Yoruba language and musical idiom.

After spending some three years at the Guildhall School, Bankole moved on to Cambridge University, achieving the double distinction of being the first (and so far only) Nigerian to study music at that institution and also being the recipient of the organ scholarship of Clare College.
During his stay in England, Bankole found time to sit for and obtain the prestigious Fellowship of the Royal College of Organists, the passport to the most important organ positions in the British Isles.

After graduating from Cambridge, Ayo received a Rockefeller Foundation fellowship which took him to the University of California, Los, Angeles, one of the principal centers for the study of non-western music.

After two years in Los Angeles, Bankole returned home and joined the staff of the Nigerian Broadcasting Corporation, from where he transferred to the University of Lagos.

Ayo Bankole was a prolific composer who has left behind an impressive list of works. These include several part-songs, piano works, organ works, songs for solo voice, cantatas, a Christmas oratorio, a Requiem, and an opera entitled A Night of Miracles. A work dating from Ayo's UCLA days, Ethnophony, is a summation of the composer's first contacts with ethnomusicology and an example of the creative usages of ethnomusicological principles.

Among the most important works of Ayo Bankole may be cited the piano sonata no. 2 in C, The Passion, which was based on the Passion of Jesus Christ and was composed in 1958, shortly after Ayo's arrival in London as a student; the three songs for baritone and piano, comprising Iya, Ja itanna to ntan and Kiniun, which have been made famous by Christopher Oyesiku; three part-songs for female choir, comprising Orisa bi oofun ko si, Yungba yungba and Enikeni to ba gbe ara re ga; Toccata and Fugue for organ; and the cantata Jona, for mixed media comprising a narrator, singers, a dancer and an unusual combination of musical instruments including the Indian tambura, a stringed instrument. Jona, which was composed and premiered at UCLA, is an example of Ayo Bankole's experiments with group improvisation.

Ayo Bankole had the makings of a genius. He had a facility for composition and a gift for presenting his material in an uncluttered and attractive idiom which bear comparison with Mozart and Schubert. Unfortunately, Ayo Bankole died before his genius came to full flower.
(My comparison of Bankole with Mozart and Schubert should not be taken to imply that Bankole wrote entirely in the European idiom. Some of his works are certainly in this idiom but his most important contribution to music was his creation of works in which elements of African traditional music are employed in new ways.)

(Having been closely familiar with Ayo Bankole's work as a composer and performer, it was a pleasant surprise to me to become recently acquainted with another aspect of him. In May 1976, the Department of Music, University of Ife, invited Ayo to give an illustrated lecture on his compositions. It was on this occasion that I discovered what a gifted lecturer Bankole was.) As a lecturer, Ayo had an engaging manner with his audience and presented his lecture with the same ease of delivery as was characteristic of his creative work. (The lecture was extremely popular and full of much information that is of value to the historical studies of the music of our times.)
In spite of his stature as a composer, Ayo Bankole did not seek international recognition and was content to boost the cause of music at the grassroots. This he did by, among other things, organizing and training choirs and generally providing the opportunity for ordinary people to participate in making music.

When the history of concert and operatic music in Africa comes to be written, the name of Ayo Bankole will feature prominently. We are lucky that Bankole has left many works behind and it is my belief that these compositions will enshrine his name for ever.

Akin Euba (1935-)
By Godwin Sadoh
He belongs to the third generation of Nigerian composers. He received his earliest musical education under his father’s tutelage in Lagos between 1943 and 1948. In 1952, Euba was admitted to the Trinity College of Music, London, to study piano and composition. While at Trinity College, he wrote his first major work, Introduction and Allegro for Orchestra in 1956.

He received a Rockefeller Foundation fellowship in 1962 to study ethnomusicology at the University of California, Los Angeles. At UCLA, he was introduced to different musical cultures from various parts of the world, and as time went on, he acquired a deeper understanding of Nigerian traditional music. On the completion of his Master’s degree at UCLA in 1966, Euba joined the University of Lagos as a Lecturer in music. He later enrolled for the Ph.D. program in ethnomusicology with Kwabena Nketia, at the University of Ghana, in 1967 and earned the degree in 1974. Euba, like his predecessors, is quite versatile covering several areas of interests in music–composition, performance, musicology, teaching, and broadcasting. He is the most prolific literary scholar of his generation with publications ranging from traditional, popular to art music. His research interests extend beyond the shores of Nigeria into other African countries as well as inter-continental. He is the author of four books, Essays on Music in Africa 1(1988), Essays on Music in Africa 2: Intercultural Perspectives (1989), Yoruba Drumming (1990), and Modern African Music: A Catalogue of Selected Archival Materials at Iwalewa-Haus, University of Bayreuth (1993). Euba has composed for virtually all the music genres: opera, piano, choral, vocal solo, and orchestra. Some of his works include Olurombi for Symphony Orchestra; Legend for violin, horn, piano and percussion; Ice Cubes for Strings; Chaka: An Opera in Two Chants for Soloists, Chorus, Yoruba Chanter, and a Mixed Ensemble of African and Western Instruments; Dirges for Speakers, Singers, Dancers, Yoruba Drums and Tapes; and Bethlehem: An African Opera for Soloists, Chorus, Dancers, Rock Ensemble and African Instruments. Unlike Sowande, Euba is well-known for his piano compositions such as Impressions from an Akwete Cloth, Saturday Night at Caban Bamboo, Tortoise and the Speaking Cloth, Four Pieces from Oyo Calabashes, and Scenes from Traditional Life. Euba has held several academic and administrative positions such as the founding Head of the Department of Music, University of Ife (1976-1977), Director of the Center for Cultural Studies, University of Lagos (1977-1980), Executive Director of the Elekoto Music Center, Lagos (1981-1986), Research Scholar at the Iwalewa-Haus, University of Bayreuth (1986-1991), Founder and Director of the Center for Intercultural Music Arts, London (1988-1998). Akin Euba is currently the head of the African Music program and the Andrew Mellon Professor of Music, at the Department of Music, University of Pittsburgh. For more information on Akin Euba’s life, see Joshua Uzoigwe’s book, Akin Euba: An Introduction to the Life and Music of a Nigerian Composer (1992).

Christopher Oyesiku (1925-)
By Godwin Sadoh

He was born in Lagos, Nigeria, on October 7, 1925. He began his secondary school education in Lagos, but completed it at the Ibadan Grammar School in 1947. Around 1935, he began his earliest musical training as a choir-boy at the Anglican Cathedral Church of Christ, Lagos, under the tutelage of Thomas Ekundayo Phillips. Phillips also prepared Oyesiku for the external examinations of the Associated Board of the Royal Schools of Music, London. During his days as a chorister at the Cathedral Church, Oyesiku rose to become one of the leading trebles and later became the best bass in the choir. He joined the Lagos Musical Society in the late 1940s and took part as a leading bass soloist in Gilbert and Sullivan's comic operas such as the Trial by Jury, H. M. S. Pinafore, and the Mikado. Oyesiku also sang the part of Elijah in the Mendelssohn's Elijah, a work that has become one of his favorite oratorios. His last performance in the Elijah was in April 1985 at the Cathedral Church of Christ, Lagos. Christopher Oyesiku won the silver medal in singing at the Festival of Arts Competition at Lagos in late 1940s and early 1950s. The festival was created by a group of eminent personalities among whom were the late Major J. G. C. Allen (a British colonial administrator who later became the Director of Administration at the Nigerian Broadcasting Corporation) and Dr. Tunji Adeniyi Jones. In 1952, Oyesiku joined the staff of the Nigerian Broadcasting Corporation (now Federal Radio Corporation of Nigeria) and three years later he was awarded a Federal Government Scholarship to study music at the Guildhall School of Music and Drama, London. At the end of six years of studies and career in England, Oyesiku earned several certificates of music:

1. Cambridge School Certificate [1947]
2. Associate of the Guildhall School of Music in Teaching [1958]
3. Associate of the Guildhall School of Music in Singing Performance [1959]
4. Licentiate of the Royal Academy of Music in Singing Performance [1959]
5. Licentiate of the Trinity College of Music [1959]
6. Teacher Training Certificate of Music, Guildhall School of Music [1959]
7. Fellowship of the Trinity College of Music [1960]

On his return to Nigeria in 1960, Oyesiku introduced the first analytical programs on Nigerian music on Radio Nigeria, western region, and commence his life long career of choral training and conducting. While at Ibadan, he participated as soloist in performances at the University of Ibadan. He moved to Lagos in 1962 to become the first Controller of Music of the Federal Radio Corporation of Nigeria. In the same year, he took over the leadership of the N.B.C. Choir (Nigerian Broadcasting Corporation) which he trained to a high level of excellence. The choir was widely acclaimed for its rendition of both sacred and secular choral repertoire. In addition, Oyesiku became the Director of Music of the Lagos Musical Society Choir that was popular for its triennial concerts. He conducted both choirs from 1963 to 1981. The N.B.C. Choir became popular for their annual Festival of Nine Lessons and Carols initiated by Christopher Oyesiku.

Apart from all these activities, Oyesiku sang regularly at several concerts including the N.B.C. Cultural Nights, Embassy Concerts, and other high profiled events organized in Lagos, Ibadan, Nsukka, and even as far as other West African countries such as Ghana and Cameroon. Indeed, Oyesiku was divinely blessed with a magnificent bass voice unparalleled to none before or after him in Nigeria and the whole of the African continent. The Ghanaian Daily Graphic had this to say of him in 1967: "Christopher Oyesiku's voice, to my mind, should be for the world. Nigeria is certainly very fortunate to have the joy and pleasure of it in their midst." One of the highlights of his career was his participation at the Cathedral Church of Christ, in a solo part of the Carol, The Three Kings with the choir of King's College, Cambridge, conducted by Sir David Willcocks during their visit to Lagos in 1972. Oyesiku was also privileged to train and conduct the Mass Choir to sing various anthems at the All-African Games in 1973 and the African Festival of Arts and Culture (FESTAC) in 1977.

Oyesiku taught music and directed choirs at the Oyo State College of Education, Ilesha, from 1981 to 1987. After leaving Oyo State College of Education, in 1987, Oyesiku was officially invited to the University of Ibadan as an Artist-in-Residence, by the then Vice-Chancellor, Ayo Banjo, to revitalize the musical life of the institution and to develop a reputable choir for the institution. As the Artist-in-Residence for ten years (1987-1997), Oyesiku did fulfilled the expectations of the Vice-Chancellor and left an indelible mark in the form of the well-established university choir and a thriving audience for classical music, who attended most of the forty concerts he organized. His duties as Artist-in-Residence at the university included imparting the art of voice production to all the undergraduate students at the Department of Theatre Arts; and training the University Choir as well as organizing musical events for the entire university community, including the musically inclined populace of the surrounding towns of Ibadan.

Oyesiku was responsible for establishing the university anthem by commissioning Isidore Okpewho to write the words, and Olaolu Omideyi to set the words to music. The anthem was a significant part of the fortieth anniversary celebrations of the premier university in 1988. Oyesiku was the Director of the University of Ibadan Choir and President of the Music Circle, University of Ibadan branch.

In addition to his duties of imparting the art of vocal production to most of the students, he organized, directed, and took part in the following programs:

-Celebrity Concert in honor of the Nobel Prize Winner for Literature in 1986, Wole Soyinka, on March 7, 1987.

-The Inaugural Concert of the University of Ibadan Choir on October 12, 1987.

-Concert to commemorate the Silver Jubilee Anniversary of the University of Ibadan, School of Drama and the Department of Theater Arts, at the Trenchard Hall, on Friday, July 22, 1988.

-Youth Concert of Classical Music for the Children's International Summer Village, Nigeria, at the Trenchard Hall, University of Ibadan, on Wednesday, August 17, 1988.

-40th Anniversary Celebration Concert sponsored by ELF Nigeria Limited, at the Trenchard Hall, University of Ibadan, on Saturday, November 12, 1988.

On November 10, 1987, Oyesiku organized and took part in a recital given by a visiting British concert organist, Peter Stevenson. The recital took place at St. Peter's Anglican Church, Aremo, Ibadan. He also helped the British Council in Nigeria to organize a jazz concert for the "Itchy Fingers" (a British jazz band) on March 9, 1988. The concert took place at the Trenchard Hall, Ibadan. On November 23, 1988, Oyesiku took part in the All Stars Night Concert, to mark the 70th Choir Festival of the Cathedral Church of Christ, Lagos. He was well known in Nigeria, West Africa, and Great Britain as an extra-ordinary bass singer. He is popularly referred to as “Tarzan” at the Cathedral Church Choir for his deep and beautiful bass voice. Oyesiku performed the bass solo in several cantatas, oratorios, and variety concerts. One of the high points of his career was the opportunity given him to perform before several dignitaries in Nigeria and the Royal family in England. He was certainly an outstanding choral conductor as well as music educator. He presently sings with the South West Essex Choir in London, England.

Thomas King Ekundayo Phillips (1884-1969)

By Godwin Sadoh

He is the ‘father of Nigerian church music.’ His contribution to the development of art music in Nigeria is numerable and worthy of mention when writing about this style of music. Ekundayo Phillips was born on March 8, 1884, in Ondo State, southwest of Nigeria, into the family of Bishop Phillips. Ekundayo Phillips’s mother, Marian Phillips, was a devoted and full-time house wife, while the father, Bishop Charles Samuel Phillips, was one of the early Yoruba bishops. Ekundayo Phillips was born into a musical family. His father was the first church organist in Lagos, while his mother was one of the seven musically gifted children of the Ogunsolu Baileys from Igbore, Abeokuta, and Ilaro respectively—all within the topography of southwest region of Nigeria, now called Ogun State. Other members of his extended family were violinists, organists, and singers.

Ekundayo Phillips received his first organ lessons from his father in Ondo State. He moved to Lagos to further his education and resided with the family of Archdeacon N. Johnson, at 3, Carrens Street. The Johnson’s family later moved to St. John’s Anglican Church Personage, Aroloya, where Archdeacon Johnson continued to give organ lessons to Phillips. Ekundayo Phillips was quite assiduous and ardent with his musical studies, for he devoted a considerable amount of time as a teenager and young man to practicing piano and organ.

Ekundayo Phillips attended the Church Missionary Society Grammar School, Lagos, where he continued his musical tutoring during the era of Rev. J. S. Fanimokun, Principal of the school at the time. In his early teens, Phillips was already assisting at the organ of St. John’s Anglican Church, Aroloya, in Lagos, and at the age of eighteen, Phillips was appointed as the Organist of St. Paul’s Anglican Church, Breadfruit, Lagos, where he faithfully served for nine years. Even though he was rated as one of the best organists in Lagos at the time; Phillips was not satisfied with his level of musicianship. He wanted to improve his musical skills and make a significant contribution to church music in Nigeria, and he felt the only way to realize this dream was for him to travel overseas. Hence, in 1911, he proceeded to England to further his music education at the Trinity College of Music, London, becoming the second Nigerian—after Robert Coker, to study professionally abroad. He majored in organ and violin at the college. Upon the completion of his studies in 1914, Phillips received the Associate of the Trinity College of Music diploma (ATCL) and returned to Nigeria. Twenty years later, in 1934, Phillips returned to the Trinity College of Music to pursue a study in composition for the Licentiate diploma. He did so well in the Licentiate examinations that he was awarded the Fellowship of the Trinity College of Music, London (FTCL), honoris causa.

One of his significant accomplishments was the training of the next generation of Nigerian composers who were to take the baton from him. His most famous students include Fela Sowande, Ayo Bankole, Lazarus Ekwueme, Christopher Oyesiku, and Charles Oluwole Obayomi Phillips, his son and successor at the Cathedral Church of Christ. Phillips composed primarily sacred music for worship in the church. His works include hymns, antiphonal chants (versicles and responses), several choral anthems in Yoruba language and two works for organ solo, Passacaglia on an African Folk Song and Variations on an African Folk Song. Some of his popular choral works are Emi Yoo Gbe Oju Mi S’Oke for SATB and Organ, Magnificat in C for SATB and Organ, and Samuel, a cantata for soloists, chorus and organ. Phillips wrote the first musicological treatise on African music by a trained African indigenous musician, titled, Yoruba Music: Fusion of Speech and Music (1953). The book is a thorough documentation of his field research on Yoruba traditional music, showing how modern composers can utilize indigenous creative ideas to create contemporary works. Ekundayo Phillips was a multi-talented person—pianist, organist, choir director, church musician, composer, teacher, ethnomusicologist, intercultural musicologist, scholar, editor, music pioneer, chemist, and optician. In 1964, Ekundayo Phillips was awarded an honorary Doctor of Music degree by the University of Nigeria, Nsukka, for his contributions to the development of church music in Nigeria. The award was conferred on him by the then President of Nigeria, Nnamdi Azikiwe (1904-1996), who was also a visitor to the University at the time. Phillips was also decorated with the award of Membership of the British Empire (MBE), by Her Royal Highness, Queen Elizabeth II, during the coronation ceremony of Duke of Edinburg. Thomas King Ekundayo Phillips departed this world on Thursday, July 10, 1969, at his residence, on 79 Agege Motor Road, Idi-Oro, Mushin, Lagos, at the age of eighty-five. For further reading on the life and music of Ekundayo Phillips, see Godwin Sadoh’s book, Thomas Ekundayo Phillips: The Doyen of Nigerian Church Music (2009).

Godwin Sadoh (1965-)

joined the Cathedral Church of Christ Choir, Lagos, as an adult to sing tenor in 1980 under Charles Obayomi Phillips, and he was a chorister until 1994. In 1982, Obayomi Phillips appointed Sadoh as an Assisting Organist, gave private lessons in piano, organ, and general musicianship, and prepared Sadoh for all the piano and general musicianship external examinations of the Associated Board of the Royal Schools of Music, London. Sadoh became the Organist and Choirmaster of Eko Boys' High School, Lagos, at the age of sixteen in 1981. He occupied this position until he graduated from high school in 1982. Sadoh is a Nigerian ethnomusicologist, intercultural musicologist, composer, church musician, organist, pianist, choral conductor, and publishing scholar with over eighty publications. He has a B.A. degree in piano performance from the Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria; M.A. in ethnomusicology from the University of Pittsburgh; M.M. in organ performance and church music from the University of Nebraska-Lincoln; and in May 2004, Sadoh received the Doctor of Musical Arts degree in organ performance and composition from Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge; making him the first African to earn a doctoral degree in organ performance from any institution in the world.
A prolific writer and composer, Sadoh’s numerous scholarly articles on Nigerian church music, organ building, composers, modern African art music, African musicology, and intercultural musicology are published in notable journals in Africa, America, Canada, Ireland, and the United Kingdom, including The Hymn, The Diapason, The Organ, Musical Times, Notes, Choral journal, Composer-USA, Africa, Living Music, Organ Encyclopedia, Percussive Notes, NTAMA, and the Contemporary African Database. He is the author of six published books:

The Organ Works of Fela Sowande: A Nigerian Organist-Composer (2004); Intercultural Dimensions in Ayo Bankole’s Music (2007)—No. 1 Bestseller in ethnomusicology on Amazon;

The Organ Works of Fela Sowande: Cultural Perspectives (2007); Joshua Uzoigwe: Memoirs of a Nigerian Composer-Ethnomusicologist (2007);

Samuel Akpabot: The Odyssey of a Nigerian Composer-Ethnomusicologist (2008); and

Thomas Ekundayo Phillips: The Doyen of Nigerian Church Music (2009).

Sadoh taught at several institutions of higher learning such as the Obafemi Awolowo University, University of Pittsburgh, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Thiel College, Pennsylvania State, Golden West College, California, Baton Rouge College, and LeMoyne-Owen College, Tennessee. He was appointed Professor of Music in 2007.

Sadoh has composed for every music genre–organ, piano, vocal solo, choral, electronic, chamber, and the orchestra. Out of his numerous compositions, over thirty are already published by Wayne Leupold Editions, Evensong Music, and Wehr’s Music House. His music has been performed and recorded at various colleges and universities, churches, radio and television stations in Canada, Costa Rica, Germany, Great Britain, Italy, Luxembourg, Nigeria, Norway, and the United States. Between 2004 and 2008, Sadoh has successively received the annual ASCAPLUS Award in recognition of the publications, recordings, and performances of his compositions worldwide. Some of his works have been recorded on CDs. Sadoh has concertized as a recitalist, accompanist, and choral conductor all over Nigeria and the United States. And he also served as Organist and Choir Director at numerous churches in Nigeria as well as the United States. His biography is listed in Marquis Who’s Who in America, Who’s Who in American Education, Who’s Who in the World, and the Contemporary African Database, London. For more information on Godwin Sadoh, visit his websites: www.godwinsadoh.com, www.youtube.com/gsadoh007.

Fela Sowande's Citation
Fela Sowande, Composer, Virtuoso Organist, Conductor, Educationist, Researcher and Ethnologist.

Fela Sowande died on February 13, 1987, at his home in Randolph near Kent State University in the USA. In the 82 years of his life, Sowande's achievements in the fields of music and African culture were phenomenal and have not as yet been bettered anywhere in the Black World.
Very early in his life, music became Fela Sowande's passion. He received lessons on the harmonium in the family; his sister miss Sowunmi Banjo his three brothers Yinka, Tunji and Olu were all musically gifted but not to the same degree of excellence as he.
Fela Sowande developed his own native talents under the tutorship of the doyen of Nigerian Church music, the late Dr. T.K.E. Phillips. As a member of the choir of Christ Church Cathedral, Lagos, Fela Sowande acquired the expertise in organ playing and the gift for harmony in composition that prepared him for higher attainments.

All along Fela Sowande worked hard at his musical training in the classical school until a chance experience of Duke Ellington's jazz music introduced him to the popular variety of music. Soon after, he and some friends formed a popular band called "The Triumph Dance" orchestra in which Sowande played the piano. For the rest of his musical life his interest combined the rigorous standards of classical music with the light-hearted demands of popular music. In both fields Fela Sowande's achievements were great.

At the age of 29 years, Fela Sowande left Nigeria intending to study Civil Engineering in England. Financial difficulties soon made him give up this quest in favor of music. He enrolled at the Trinity College of Music in London in order to perfect his classical education but had to work as an entertainer and popular dance musician for his keep.

During his Trinity College days, Fela Sowande's musical accomplishment earned him a place as a composer for the BBC and during the Second World War, he was appointed musical director of the colonial film unit of the British Ministry of Information, London. It was during these assignments that Sowande developed and perfected his musical idiom; fusing African traditional motifs into the classical form.

By 1943 Sowande graduated magna cum laude from the Trinity College of Music, London, as a fellow of the Royal College of Organists, winning the three choice prizes namely the Lumpus prize for Theory, Harding prize for Organ, and Read prize for the student with the highest aggregate marks in the examinations. Fela Sowande's other contributions to the advancement of music in Nigeria included: the introduction of music as a discipline in elementary and secondary schools, the pioneering of scholarship awards to promising Nigerians to study abroad, the promotion of musical bodies like the Lagos Musical Society as far back as 1953 and the Society of Professional Artists of Nigeria (SPAN) (1966); the composition of musical works for solo voices choral voices, the piano, the organ, and orchestra.

The most famous of these works are "Folk Symphony" commissioned for the Nigerian Independence celebrations and played by the Bournemouth Symphony Orchestra in Leeds England; "The Spring Song" and "African Suite" first performed by the BBC Orchestra in 1944, and "Ise Oluwa" Obangiji" 1954.

Fela Sowande undertook concert tours of the United States of America (1957 - 58) giving organ recitals of his own works and illustrated lectures in several American universities.

As a lecturer and researcher, he worked at the Institute of Eduation, Ibadan, and the Institute of African Studies, Ibadan, between 1962-65 publishing several works on African culture most notable of which include "IFA" and "Oruka Amutorunwa" co-authored with the late Chief Fagbemi Ajanaku, the Araba of Lagos at that time. In 1968, following his appointment as Processor of Black Studies at Howard University USA, and a consultant to Kent State University, USA, Fela Sowande finally settled in that country where he lived until his death in 1987. His impact on Black Education in the USA was epoch-making and has revolutionized the concept of Black Culture among both whites and blacks.

Fela Sowande received many honors in his life some of which are:
- the M.F.N. (Member of the Federation of Nigeria) award (1964);
- the conferment of the traditional chieftaincy title of Bagbile of Lagos in 1968; and
- the naming of the department of music of the University of Nsukka as the "Sowande School of Music" in 1962.

Joshua Uzoigwe (1946-2005)
By Godwin Sadoh

He was born on 1 July 1946 in Umuahia, Imo State, Nigeria. He belongs to the Igbo ethnic group, one of the three major ethnic groups in Nigeria. Uzoigwe attributes his first contact with music to participation in various musical activities in his village. The annual wrestling match in his community offered one forum for music performance. His involvement in this match was mainly audience participation such as hand-clapping, singing, and dancing. The wrestling bouts were always accompanied by mgba music. Mgba music refers to a particular ensemble that accompanies wrestling in the southern part of Igbo land. Uzoigwe also sang as a child in a local choir and occasionally performed the works of Igbo composers, including hymns and sacred anthems, during special services. In this way, Uzoigwe, like many Africans, grew up bi-musical. Bi-musicality refers specifically to the intuitive understanding of and/or trained skills in two or more musical traditions. In Uzoigwe’s case, this refers to knowledge of both Western and indigenous musics. In other words, he has become equally comfortable with European and African musical scales, rhythms, timbres, harmonies, forms, and stylistic principles.

In 1960, Uzoigwe was admitted to King’s College, Lagos, one of the leading secondary schools offering Western classical music in Nigeria. The music curriculum included harmony, theory, and history of Western music. He was also a chorister in the school’s Protestant chapel. After graduating from King’s College, Uzoigwe went on to study music at the International School, Ibadan (1965-67), and later at the University of Nigeria at Nsukka (1970-73).

At the International School and the University of Nigeria, Uzoigwe studied orchestration and counterpoint, theory of music, history of Western music, and performance in piano and voice. He was also exposed to some aspects of Nigerian traditional music at the University of Nigeria, which offers a fairly bi-cultural music education. Uzoigwe’s music education was interrupted by the Nigerian civil war from May 1967 to January 1970.

In 1973, Uzoigwe received a scholarship from the government of the former East Central State of Nigeria to continue his music studies at the Guildhall School of Music and Drama, London. At the Guildhall School of Music, Uzoigwe studied piano and composition from 1973 to 1977. In this school, he acquired a thorough training in European music, studying the works of his composition teacher, other twentieth century Western and Nigerian composers such as Akin Euba, Ayo Bankole, Arnold Schoenberg, Anton Webern, and Alban Berg. After four years of studies at Guildhall, Uzoigwe received two professional diplomas in music: Licentiate of the Guildhall School of Music (LGSM) in piano playing and teaching in 1974; and Graduate of the Guildhall School of Music (GGSM) in piano and composition in 1977. Following this, in 1977, Uzoigwe proceeded to Queen’s University, Belfast, in Ireland, to study ethnomusicology with John Blacking.

While at Queen’s, Uzoigwe was introduced to different musical cultures from many parts of the world and, as time went on, he acquired greater knowledge of African traditional music. With a comparative view of different musics of the world, Uzoigwe admits that he gradually became aware why the local musicians in Nigeria deliberately avoid certain musical elements and why they employ others wholeheartedly. The results of this epiphany were later utilized in Uzoigwe’s compositions.

The search for a deeper knowledge of Nigerian traditional music led Uzoigwe to compose some works on an experimental level. In 1978, he wrote his first work at Queen’s University, Belfast, called Ritual Procession for African and European orchestra. This work also marked the beginning of a new style to be adopted by Uzoigwe, a synthesis of both Nigerian and Western musical elements. At the end of his sojourn at Queen’s University in 1981, Uzoigwe left for Nigeria with two degrees—M.A. and Ph.D. in ethnomusicology. Uzoigwe taught at four institutions in Nigeria: Alvan Ikoku College of Education (1979-1980), Obafemi Awolowo University (1981-1991), University of Nigeria, Nsukka (1991-1995), and the University of Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, where he was appointed Associate Professor of Music and Head of the Department of Music in 1995. Joshua Uzoigwe passed away on 15 October 2005 and was buried in Umuahia, on 5 November of the same year. He was survived by three children, Uzo, Nneka, and Ejike, who presently reside in Northern Ireland with their grandparents. For further reading on Joshua Uzoigwe’s career, see Godwin Sadoh’s book, Joshua Uzoigwe: Memoirs of a Nigerian Composer-Ethnomusicologist (2007).

Nigerian Music Educators

The following names are not exhaustive as there are teachers with whom contact could not be made for this maiden edition. Some addresses may have changed. We would like to seize this opportunity to ask teachers and musicians who have not supplied us with their names, photographs and profiles to do so, and those who have changed addresses to contact us. Editor.


Nos. Name Address

1. Mr. S.I. Abanobi F.G.G.C, Abuloma

2. Mrs. B.O. Abiona Eko Boys High School, Mushin, Lagos.

3. Mr. F.O. Abioye Shepherdhill Girls' High School,
Obanikoro, Lagos.

4. Mr. M.I. Abodunrin Oshodi High School, Oshodi, Lagos

5. Mrs Achebe O.N. Arts & Culture Section, Fed. Min. of Education. Victoria Island, Lagos.

6. Mr. S.M. Achinihu Alvan Ikoku Coll. of Educ., Owerri.

7. Mr. D. Adarabierin Model Coll., Meiran, Box 64, Agege.

8. Mr. David A. Adebayo Fed. Govt. Girls' College, Calabar

9. Mrs. Liz Adebayo Fed. Govt. College, Idoani

10. Miss M.O. Adedeji Eko Boys High School, Mushin, Lagos.

11. Mrs. A.O. Adediran Local Govt. Pry Sch. Agege, Lagos

12. Mrs. C.A. Adegoke Dairy Farm Sec. Sch. Isolo, Lagos.

13. Mr. J.A. Adegbola National College, Gbagada, Lagos.

14. Mr. James Adekunle Muson Sch. of Music, Box 1923, Lagos.

15. Mrs. G.T. Adeleye Mushin Comm. High Sch. Idi Araba, Lagos.

16. Mrs. S.U. Adeola Angus Memorial High Sch. Igbobi,Lagos.

17. Mrs. F.Y. Adeluwole Festac Grammar Sch. Lagos.

18. Mrs. Banke Ademola Music Section, Radio Nigeria 2,
45, Martins St. Lagos.

19. A.O. Adeogun College of Education, Agbor.

20. Mrs. Adesanya St. Joseph Sec. Sch. Mangoro, Agege, Lagos.

21. Mr. Adesina Fed. Govt. College, Ijanikin, Lagos.

22. Mr. Adeyemi Ansar-Ud-Deen Comp. High Sch., Okota.

23. Mrs. G.O. Adeyemi Ansar-Ud-Deen Comp. High Sch., Okota, Lagos.

24. Mr. J.R. Adeyemi F.G.G. College, Potiskum,
PMB 1025, Yobe State.

25. Mrs. S.A. Agunloye Akoka High Sch. Akoka,
P O Box 3365, Yaba, Lagos.

26. Mrs. V. Agwuegbo Euba Boys High Sch. Mushin Lagos.

27. Mr. C.O. Ahokhai Emotan College, Benin City.

28. Mr. E.I. Aimiwu Nigeria Police Force, Police College, Ikeja, Lagos.

29. Mr. Aina D.O. Auntie Ayo Comprehensive Sec. Sch.
3, Keffi St. Box 2882, Ikoyi, Lagos.

30. Ms. T. Ajaere Iganmu High Sch. Sari Iganmu, Lagos.

31. Mr. M.T. Ajakaiye Comm. Sec. Sch., Worksyard, Mushin.

32. Mr. Ajao F.G.G. College, Sagamu.

33. Mr. S.O. Ajayi Wahab Folawiyo High Sch.,
P O Box 172, Ebute Metta, Lagos.

34. Mrs. M.I. Akinbade F.G.G. College, Sagamu

35. Ms. E.O. Akinbami Chrisland College, Idimu,
P O Box 1655, Agege, Lagos.

36. Mrs. Dupe Akinola F.G.C. Ido Ani.

37. Miss O.M. Akinola College of Education, Ido Ani

38. Mrs V.T. Akinola Mushin Coll., Egbe, Ikeja, (LED) Lagos.

39. Mr. Akpan Mainland High Sch. 16, Onayade St.
Ladeyi, Lagos.

40. Mr. E.E. Akpan F.G.G.C., Ikot Abasi, Akwa Ibom

41. Mr. R.K. Akintan Methodist Girls High Sch., Yaba.

42. Mr. P.O. Akinwale Iponri Estate High Sch., Ketu, Lagos

43. Mrs. F.M. Akinwunmi Government College, Ojo, Lagos.

44. Miss G.O. Akinleye Aguda Grammar Sch. Surulere, Lagos.

45. Mr. J.O. Alade Ondo State of Education, Ikene.

46. Dr. A. Alaja-Nrowne (formerly of) Centre for Cultural Studies,
Uni. of Lagos, Akoka, Lagos.

47. Mrs. Alaribe Sango High Sch., Sango, Lagos.

48. Mr. N.O. Alaribe NAF HQ., Camp Band Office, V/I, Lagos.

49. Mrs. R.C. Amadi Army Cantonment Sec. Sch., Ikeja.

50. Mr. O.O. Amalaha F.G. College, Port Harcourt.

51. Lt. Lawson Amechi Army School of Music, Ojo, Lagos.

52. Miss R. Anajemba Music Section, Fed. Radio Corp. of
Nig., Ikoyi, Lagos.

53. Mr. S.A. Amoo F.G.G. College, Calabar.

54. Mrs. G.N. Anyanwu Uni. Demonstration Sec. Sch. Uniport, Port Harcourt.

55. Mr. Ana Corona Nursery/Pry. Sch. Gbagada, Lagos.

56. Mr. E.B. Apea Hoares Mem. Methodist Church, 371,
Herbert Macaulay St., Yaba, Lagos.

57. Mrs. R.O. Aregbesola Ojodu Grammar Sch. Ikeja, Lagos.

58. Mrs. A.A. Ashaolu C.M.S. Girls Grammar School,
P O Box 394, Bariga, Lagos.

59. Mr. Awodiran Majidun Community Grammar School,
Majidun, Lagos.

60. Mrs. F.I. Awonusi Wasimi Community High School, Lagos.

61. Mrs. Awogbade Igbowu Sec. School, Mushin, Lagos.

62. Mrs. O.K. Ayoade Itire Pry. Sch., 7, Kabiyesi St.,
Itire/LCHE, Isolo Blk 387, Flat 4.

63. Mrs. C.O. Ayodele Ipakodo GRammar Sch., Uni. of Lagos.

64. Mr. N.A. Ayiku International Sch., Uni. of Lagos.

65. Mrs. R.A. Ayiti St. Paul's Anglican Primary Sch.,
Isolo, Lagos.

66. Mrs. N.A. Azeez Onitolo Grammar Sch., Lagos.

67. Mrs Bernice Aziude Giorls High Sch., Awkunanaw.

68. Mrs. S.M. Babatola Ikeja High Sch., Ikeja, Lagos.

69. Mrs. Bola Babayemi F.G.G. College Akure, Ondo State.

70. Mr. R.A. Babatunde Ire-Akari Grammar Sch., Okota,
15, Oni St. Surulere, Lagos.

71. Mrs. Balogun F.G.G. College, Bida, Niger State.

72. Mr. Ayo Bankole (Jnr.) 31, Rasak Balogun Street, S/lere,

Mr. E.A. Boamah is now presently a full-time pastor in London, UK.

74. Mrs. R.F.D. Boamah, (now Mrs. Akinselure) 23, Aderupoko St., Iwaya, Yaba,

75. Mr. O. Boateng Ifako Intern. Sec. Sch. Agege, Lagos

76. Mr. Briggs 78, Sholanke St., Akoka, Lagos.

77. Mr. R.O. Bucknor ( Formerly of) The Music Unit, Centre for Cultural Studies, Uni. of Lagos,
Lagos. Was also Choirmaster at the Cathedral Church of Christ Lagos, until his death in 2008.

78. Mrs. O.O. Chiazor Musan Grammar Sch., Ipaja,
Box 1786, Lagos.

79. Mr. C.A. Chinagorom Emmanuel College, Owerri, Imo State.

80. Mr. Ngozi Chinwah Music Unit, Center for Cultural
Studies, Uni. of Lagos, Lagos.

81. Miss Monye Chinwokwu F.G.G. College, Sagamu.

82. Miss C.N. Chioke Army Day Sec. Sch., Awkunanaw, Enugu.

83. Miss C. Chukwujekwu Fed. Govt. College, Ijanikin, Lagos.

84. Mr. C.O. Chukwuka Anambra State Coll. of Educ., Nsugbe.

85. Miss A.B. Dada Gbagada Girls' Sec. Sch. Bariga, Lagos.

86. Mrs. F.B. Dada St. Paul's Anglican Pry. Sch., Isolo, Lagos.

87. Mr. A. David F.G.G. College, Calabar.

88. Mr. Samuel K. Dumpe Govt. Girls College, Rumuokwuta, P/H, Rivers State.

89. Mrs. Ngozi Duru F.G.G. College, Owerri.

90. Miss T. Ebeleke F.G.G. College, Abuloma.

91. Mrs. P.O. Ebohon Oduduwa Sec. Scho., Mushin, Lagos.

92. Mrs. T. Edet Awori College, Ojo, Lagos.

93. Mrs. Edosomuan Emotan Coll., Benin City, Edo State.

94. Mrs. M.O. Edun Ojuwaye Public Pry Sch., Mushin, Lagos.

95. Miss Patricia Ekanem F.G.G. College, Calabar.

96. Mrs. P.C. Ekepdoa F.G. Coll., Ikot Ekpene, Akwa Ibom

97. Mrs Q.E. Ehimamiegho Niger College, Benin City, Edo State.

98. Mrs. M. Ediku Ehizogue Niger College, Benin City, Edo State.

99. Mrs. Ehrabhahiemen Edokpolor Grammar Sch., Benin City,
Edo State.

100. Prof. L.E.N. Ekwueme Music Unit, Centre for Cultural Studies, Unilag, Lagos. Presently a traditional chief in his home town of Oko, Nigeria.

101. Dr (Mrs.) L.U. Ekwueme Dept. of Curriculum Studies, Faculty of Education, Unilag, Lagos.

102. Mrs. S.I. Elewiodo Low-Cost Housing Pry Sch., Mushin, Lagos.

103. Mr. M. John Enang F.G.G. College, Abuloma

104. Mrs. E.A. Eromosele Edokpolor Grammar Sch, Benin City,
Edo State.

105. Major T. Eru Nigerian Army Band, Abalti Barracks, Ojuelegba Road, Lagos.

106. Mrs. I.M. Esien F.G.G. College, Calabar.

107. Mrs. E.E. Eshua Air Force Pry Sch. V/Island, Lagos.

108. Mrs. J.O. Etaredafienyo Command Day Sec. Sch., Ikeja,

109. Miss T.N. Ezumezu Queen's School, Enugu.

110. Mrs. Fashola St. Joseph Sec. Sch., Agege, Lagos.

111. Miss S.O. Hassan St. Phillips Private Sch.,
P.O. Box 6808, Apapa, Lagos.

112. Mr. M.K. Hicks Queen's College, Yaba, Lagos.

113. Mrs. Idehen Oguda College, Benin City, Edo State.

114. Mrs Emurobome Idolor College of Education, Agbor.

115. Miss C.P. Igboekwe 23, Commercial Avenue, Yaba, Lagos.

116. Mrs U.N. Ifedi Reagan Memorial Baptist Girls' School.

117. Miss Augustina Igwezue U. G. S. S., Enugu.

118. Miss. C.N. Ikaraoha F.G. College, Ikom, Cross River.

119. Mr. S.N.O. Ike Queen's College, Yaba, Lagos.

120. Mrs. M. Iluebare St. Jame's Grammar Sch., Afuke Enagi, Edo State.

121. Miss Chinwe Iloenyosi Army Day Sec. Sch., Abakpa, Enugu.

122. Mrs. Stella Igeghohi Edo College, Benin City, Edo State.

123. Mrs. E. I. Itang Queen's College, Yaba, Lagos.

124. Mr. L.K.G. Johnson Lagos State Col. of Education, Ijanikin, Lagos.

125. Mr. A. Jubril Community Sec. Sch., Worksyard, Mushin, Lagos.

126. Mrs. E. O. Kalu Command Day Sec. Sch., Ojo Lagos.

127. Mrs. G.O. Kolawole F.G. College, Idoani

128. Miss D. Kasimanwuma Birrel Avenue High Sch., Birrel Ave., Yaba, Lagos.

129. Mrs A.A. Kayode Ojota Secondary Sch., Ojota, Lagos.

130. Kehinde, J.O. F.G.G. College, Akure.

131. Mr. Peter King Peter King Coll. of Music, Km 39, Okafor Ileogbo, Badagry Exp./Way,
P.O. Box 447, Festac Town, Lagos.

132. Mrs. Kuteyi Command Sch., An Barracks, Yaba, Lagos.

133. Dr. (Mrs) J.N. Lo-Bamijoko Music Unit, Centre for Cultural Studies, Unilag, Lagos.

134. Lt. Theo Lafenwa Army School of Music, Ojo, Lagos.

135. Mr. S. Lukula Min. of Educ., BESCEPT Dept. Igbobi Coll. Compd., PMB 1001, Igbobi, Lagos.

136. Mr. A.L. Macaulay Ebenezer Comp. High School, Lagos.

137. Mr. J.S. Maison College of Education Ihamufu.

138. Mr. G.O. Marizu F.G. College, Kano.

139. Mrs, Masha Music Dept., American Inter. Sch., V/Island, Lagos.

140. Mrs Matti Saka Tinubu Grammar Sch. Broad Street, Lagos.

141. Dr. E.A. Merenu Music Unit Centre for Cultural Studies, Unilag, Lagos.

142. Miss Chinwe P. Nnamani Mbulujodo Nike Girls Sec. Sch., Emene, Enugu.

143. Mrs. V.O. Nwabuzor Maryland Comprehensive High Sch., Maryland, Lagos.

144. Mrs. R.O. Nwachukwu 11, I.K. Dairo Str. Lawanson Comm. Pry Sch., Itire, Lagos.

145. Miss Florence Nwaebue F.G. College, Enugu.

146. Dr. Nwajei G.U. Arts & Culture Section, National Arts Theatre, Iganmu, Lagos.

147. Miss V.T. Nwangboje Niger College, Benin City, Edo State.

148. Mrs. A.N. Nwanze F.G.G. Coll., B/City, Edo State.

149. Mr. P. Nwarukwe F.G. College, Ikot Ekpene, Akwa Ibom

150. Mr. S. C. Nwokedi Orpheus Music Mart, 27, Association Ave., Ilupeju, Lagos.

151. Mr. U.E. Nwoko College of Education, Agbo.

152. Mr. B.O. Nwosu F.G.G. College, Okigwe.

153. Mrs. P.C. Nwosu F.G. College P/H, Rivers State.

154. Mr. J.A. Nyong F.G. College, P M B 3164, Zaria Road, Kano.

155. Mr. T. Obagaye Ministry of Education, Akure.

156. Mrs Obaro Emotan Coll., Benin City, Edo State.

157. Mrs. Tolu Obagimi Cathedral Church of Christ, Marina, Lagos.

158. Mrs. Doris Amaka Obi F.G. College, Ikom, P M B 1035, Cross River State.

159. Mr. P.O. Obinna F.G.G. College, B/City, Edo State.

160. Mr. M. Obong Comm. High Sch., Orimedu, Lekki, Lagos.

161. Mrs. Rosemary Ochunu Emene Primary Sch., Emene, Enugu.

162. Mr. N.S. Odeleye F.G.G. College, Bauchi.

163. Miss C.O. Odetoyinbo State Grammar School, S/Lere, Lagos.

164. Comm. Benedict Odiase NPF Band, Police Coll., Ikeja, Lagos.

165. Mr. Odion Fed. Govt. College, Ijanikin, Lagos.

166. Mr. J.O. Odumosu Baptist Academy High Sch., Obanikoro, Box 321, Yaba, Lagos.

167. Miss U.B. Ofodueze F.G. College, Enugu.

168. Mrs B.O. Ofoegbu Queen's School, Enugu.

169. Mrs. V.W. Oforjamah Immaculate Heart Comp. High Sch., Makryland, Lagos.

170. Mr. O.G. Ogbogbono Ajara Grammar School, Badagry, Lagos.

171. Mr. B. Ogedengbe Air Force Sec. School, Ikeja, Lagos.

172. Mrs. Q.I. Ogidiagba F.G.G. College, Bida, Niger State.

173. Mr. Ogiamein Niger College, Benin City, Edo State.

174. Miss M.K. Oginni Arts & Culture Sect., Fed. Min. of Educ. V/I, Box 52241, Fal;omo, Ikoyi, Lagos.

175. Miss I.A. Ogoke F.G.G. College, Abuloma

176. Mr. O. Ogunbameru King's Coll., 4, Abdullahi St, Chemist B/Stop, Box 2131, S/Lere, Lagos.

177. Mr. Ogunduboye F.G.G. College, Sagamu, Ogun State.

178. Mr. Olu Ogunduboye Air Force School, Jos.

179. Mrs F.A. Ogunjemila Eva Adelaja Girls Sec. Grammar Sch., Bariga, Lagos.

180. Mrs. F.A. Ojemola Archbishop Aggrey Memorial Sec. Sch., Lagos.

181. Mrs. A. O. Ojumoola Ilasamaja Pry. Sch., Ilasamaja. 26, Ogogbo St. Itire, Lagos.

182. Mr. C.S.O. Ojo Command Pry Sch., An Barracks, Yaba, Lagos.

183. Mr. J.O. Ojo Ondo Stte Coll. of Eduation, Ikere.

184. Miss H.O. Ojugo F.G. College, Minna, Niger State.

185. Miss Mabel Okafor F.G. Coll., P/Hacourt, Rivers State.

186. Mr. N.C.O. Okafor Army Day School, Abakpa Enugu.

187. Mrs. F.N. Okechukwu Girls High School, Awkunanaw, Enugu.

188. Mrs Ngozi J. Okeke F.G.G. College, Owerri, Imo State.

189. Miss N. Okereke F.G.G. College, Enugu.

190. Mrs. C.J. Okereke F.G.G. Coll., Onitsha, P M B 1636.

191. Mrs Okongwu F.G. College, Ijanikin, Lagos.

192. Miss Ngozi S. Okoro F.G. College, Odogbolu.

193. Mrs. Okungbowa Edokpolor Gramm. Sch. B/C, Edo State.

194. Mrs. Okunna Queen's School, Enugu.

195. Mr. Okunrinniyi Isolo High Sch., Isolo, Mushin, Lagos.

196. Mr. K. Okunsanya Music Section, FRCN, Ikoyi, Lagos.

197. Lt. T.O. Oladipo Army School of Music, Ojo, Lagos.

198. Mrs. E. B. Olaleye Alimosho Gramm. Sch., S/Lere, Lagos.

199. Mr. G. O. Olaleye Ang. Girls Gramm. Sch., S/Lere, Lagos.

200. Mr. Wole Olaleye F.G.G. Coll., Bida, Niger State.

201. Miss O. A. Olowu Maryland Comp. High Sch., Maryland, Box 9770, Ikeja, Lagos.

202. Mrs. S.O. Oloyede Keke High School, Ogba, Agege, Lagos.

203. Mr. Olayiwola Navy Sec. Sch., Navy Town, Ojo, Lagos.

204. Mr. J. Ola Ologunde C/o The Commissioner, Min. of Educ. Akure, Ondo State.

205. Mrs Olorunfemi Command Primary School, An Barracks, Yaba, Lagos.

206. Mr. Oluajo Bolade Grammar Sch. Oshodi, Lagos.

207. Mr. Olusegun, E.O. Ang. Gramm. Sch., Igbarra, Ondo State.

208. Col. J.A. Olubobokun Lagos State Coll. of Edu. Ijannikin,(Rtd) Box 52219, 10-12, Akinola Cole Cres., Off Adeniyi Jones Ave., Ikeja, Lagos.

209. Mrs. B. O. Omogoroye Ikeja Grammar School, Oshodi, Lagos.

210. Mr. Sina Omolaye Falomo High School, Ikoyi, Lagos.

211. Mr. Omole Min. of Edu., BESCEPT Dept., Igbobi Coll., P.M.B. 1001, Igbobi, Lagos.

212. Mr. Y. B. Omibeku Morocco Comp. High Sch., Igbobi, Lagos.

213. Mrs Omile Festac College, Festac Town, Lagos.

214. Mrs A.O. Omolere Oshodi Comp. High Sch., Oshodi, Lagos.

215. Mrs. V.O. Onabolu Awori Ajerpmio Gram. Sch., Old Ojo Rd., Agboju, Box 2305. Lagos.

216. Mr. Kehinde Onatayo Mainland High School, Fadeyi, Lagos.

217. Mr. K. Oni, Formerly of the FRCN, Ikoyi, Lagos. Presently organist of the Chapel of Ressurection, UI, Ibadan.

218. Mr. I.S. Oniti F.G.G. College, yola.

219. Mrs. R.O. Onubedo Ikeja High Sch., Ikeja, lagos.

220. Mrs. I.U. Onuwugbalu Fed. Inspectorate of Edu., Lagos

221. Mrs. L. Oresanya St. Saviours School, Ikoyi, Lagos

222. Mrs. F.O. Opaleye Oregun High Sch., Oregun, Ikeja, Lagos.

223. Miss Sandra Oriakhi Greater Tomorrow Sec. Sch., GRA,
Benin City, Edo State.

224. Mrs Orungbeja African Teachers' College, Ifako,
Agege, Lagos.

225. Mrs. J.O. Oshunkoya Ikeja Grammar Sch., Oshodi, Lagos.

226. Mrs. M.I. Osiegbu World Faith Bible Church, Warri,
Delta State.

227. Miss M.C. Osuji F.G. College, Jos.

228. Mrs. J.E. Otovo United Christian Sec. Sch., Apapa,
Etiosa (LED) Lagos.

229. U.B. Otodueze F.G. College, Enugu.

230. Mrs. G.C. Otty F.G.G. College, Abuloma

231. Mr. Allotey Papoe Muson Sch. of Music, Box 1923, Lagos.

232. Lt. Popoola Army School of Music, Ojo, Lagos.

233. Mr. Obayomi Philips (1919-2007) Organist and Choirmaster of the Cathedral Church
Christ, Marina, Lagos.

234. Mr. O.O. Roberts Fed. College of Education, Abeokuta.

235. Miss R. Rufai F.G.G. College, Sagamu.

236. Mrs. F.O. Saraibi Alimosho Gramm. School, Agege, Lagos.

237. Capt. Hayi Sati Nig. Army Band, Dodan Barracks, Lagos.

238. Mrs. D.O. Sholola Wesley Girls Sec. Sch., Yaba, Lagos.

239. Mrs. M. C. Sobogun Our Lady of Apostles Sec. Sch.,
Yaba, Lagos.

240. Mr. O.J. Sogunro Coker SEc. Sch. Orile Igamu, Lagos.

241. Mrs. Soyanwo Pec Repertory Theatre, Onikan, Lagos.

242. Mr. T.O. Smith Aje Comp. High Sch., Yaba, Lagos.

243. Mr. Kwesi Stephens Corona Pry School, V/Island, Lagos.

244. Mrs. B.I. Sulaiman Meth. Girls' Gramm Sch., Badagry, Lagos.

245. Mr. Taiwo King's College, Lagos.

246. Miss C.A. Temenu St. Finbarr's College, Akoka, Lagos.

247. Mr. Emmanuel Tettey Music Unit, Centre for Cultural Studies, Unilag, Lagos.

248. Mr. F.T. Uchegbu T.T.C. Anambra State.

249. Mrs. U.G. Odeh Akintan Gramm Sch., Surulere, Lagos.

250. Mrs. Kate Ugboma Air Force Pry Sch., V/Island, Lagos.

251. Mr. E.P. Uko F.G. College, Kwali, Abuja.

252. Mrs. G.E. Ukwuije Ajayi Crowther Mem. Gram. Sch., Shomolu, Lagos.

253. Miss Umeh Navy Sec. Sch., Navy Town, Ojo, Lagos.
254. Mrs. I.J. Umoh F.G. Coll. Ikot Ekpene, Akwa Ibom.

255. Miss A. Uwaezuoke Queen's College, Yaba, Lagos.

256. Mrs. A.I. Uzoaga N U P T E Box 284, Surulere, Lagos.

257. Mr. Richard Willoughby Test Development Div., WAEC, Ogba,
Ikeja, Lagos.

258. Mr. Thomas Maliu Admin. Section. L.G. Edu. Akure.

(To be Continued)

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